# mg + hno3 ra no

3Mg + 8HNO33Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

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### Word Equation

Magnesium + Nitric Acid = Magnesium Nitrate + Nitric Oxide (Radical) + Water

Three moles of Magnesium [Mg] and eight moles of Nitric Acid [HNO3] react đồ sộ form three moles of Magnesium Nitrate [Mg(NO3)2], two moles of Nitric Oxide (Radical) [NO] and four moles of Water [H2O]

Element 12

• ### Nitric Acid - HNO3

Hono2 Hydrogen Nitrate Engravers Acid Aqua Fortis Fuming Nitric Acid Spirit Of Niter

• ### Nitric Oxide (Radical) - NO

Nitric Oxide Nitrosyl Hydride Nitrogen Protoxide Nitrogen Oxide Hydroxyamine Nitrosyl Radical Nitroxyl Nitroxide Radical

• ### Water - H2O

Hydroxic Acid H₂O [Oh2] Aqua Pure Water Hydrogen Oxide Oxidane Dihydrogen Oxide

### Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics of the reaction can be calculated using a lookup table.

#### Is the Reaction Exothermic or Endothermic?

Mg (s) HNO3 (l) Mg(NO3)2 (s) 3 mol 0 kJ/mol -0 kJ 8 mol -173.2176 kJ/mol 1385.7408 kJ 3 mol -790.65048 kJ/mol -2371.95144 kJ 2 mol 90.24888 kJ/mol 180.49776 kJ 4 mol -241.818464 kJ/mol -967.273856 kJ -1385.7408 kJ -3158.727536 kJ -1772.986736 kJ

ΣΔH°f(reactants) > ΣΔH°f(products), ví Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O is exothermic (releases heat).

#### Is the Reaction Exoentropic or Endoentropic?

ΔS = Sproducts - Sreactants. If ΔS < 0, it is exoentropic. If ΔS > 0, it is endoentropic.

Mg (s) HNO3 (l) Mg(NO3)2 (s) 3 mol 32.693776 J/(mol K) -98.081328 J/K 8 mol 155.60296 J/(mol K) -1244.82368 J/K 3 mol 164.0128 J/(mol K) 492.0384 J/K 2 mol 210.651848 J/(mol K) 421.303696 J/K 4 mol 188.715136 J/(mol K) 754.860544 J/K 1342.905008 J/K 1668.20264 J/K 325.297632 J/K

ΣΔS°(products) > ΣΔS°(reactants), ví Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O is endoentropic (increase in entropy).

#### Is the Reaction Exergonic or Endergonic?

ΔG = Gproducts - Greactants. If ΔG < 0, it is exergonic. If ΔG > 0, it is endergonic.

Mg (s) HNO3 (l) Mg(NO3)2 (s) 3 mol 0 kJ/mol -0 kJ 8 mol -79.9144 kJ/mol 639.3152 kJ 3 mol -589.5256 kJ/mol -1768.5768 kJ 2 mol 86.56696 kJ/mol 173.13392 kJ 4 mol -228.588656 kJ/mol -914.354624 kJ -639.3152 kJ -2509.797504 kJ -1870.482304 kJ

ΣΔG°(reactants) > ΣΔG°(products), ví Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O is exergonic (releases energy).

### Reaction Expressions

Kc or Q = ( [Mg(NO3)2]3 [NO]2 [H2O]4 ) / ( [Mg]3 [HNO3]8 )

(assuming all reactants and products are aqueous. substitutue 1 for any solids/liquids, and Psubstance for gases.)

rate = -1/3 * (Δ[Mg] / Δt) = -1/8 * (Δ[HNO3] / Δt) = 1/3 * (Δ[Mg(NO3)2] / Δt) = một nửa * (Δ[NO] / Δt) = 1/4 * (Δ[H2O] / Δt)

(assuming constant volume in a closed system and no accumulation of intermediates or side products)

## Instructions

To balance a chemical equation, enter an equation of a chemical reaction and press the Balance button. The balanced equation will appear above.

• Use uppercase for the first character in the element and lowercase for the second character. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F.
• Ionic charges are not yet supported and will be ignored.
• Replace immutable groups in compounds đồ sộ avoid ambiguity. For example, C6H5C2H5 + O2 = C6H5OH + CO2 + H2O will not be balanced, but XC2H5 + O2 = XOH + CO2 + H2O will.
• Compound states [like (s) (aq) or (g)] are not required.
• You can use parenthesis () or brackets [].

## How đồ sộ Balance Chemical Equations

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## Balance Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O Using the Algebraic Method

Xem thêm: gặp lá cơm nếp

To balance the equation Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O using the algebraic method step-by-step, you must have experience solving systems of linear equations. The most common methods are substitution/elimination and linear algebra, but any similar method will work.

### Step 1: Label Each Compound With a Variable

Label each compound (reactant or product) in the equation with a variable đồ sộ represent the unknown coefficients.

a Mg + b HNO3 = c Mg(NO3)2 + d NO + f H2O

### Step 2: Create a System of Equations

Create an equation for each element (Mg, H, N, O) where each term represents the number of atoms of the element in each reactant or product.

```Mg:	1a	+	0b	=	1c	+	0d	+	0f
H:	0a	+	1b	=	0c	+	0d	+	2f
N:	0a	+	1b	=	2c	+	1d	+	0f
O:	0a	+	3b	=	6c	+	1d	+	1f

```

### Step 3: Solve For All Variables

Use substitution, Gaussian elimination, or a calculator đồ sộ solve for each variable.

• 1a - 1c = 0
• 1b - 2f = 0
• 1b - 2c - 1d = 0
• 3b - 6c - 1d - 1f = 0

Use your graphing calculator's rref() function (or an online rref calculator) đồ sộ convert the following matrix into reduced row-echelon-form:

```[ 1	 0	-1	 0	 0	0]
[ 0	 1	 0	 0	-2	0]
[ 0	 1	-2	-1	 0	0]
[ 0	 3	-6	-1	-1	0]
```

The resulting matrix can be used đồ sộ determine the coefficients. In the case of a single solution, the last column of the matrix will contain the coefficients.

Simplify the result đồ sộ get the lowest, whole integer values.

• a = 3 (Mg)
• b = 8 (HNO3)
• c = 3 (Mg(NO3)2)
• d = 2 (NO)
• f = 4 (H2O)

### Step 4: Substitute Coefficients and Verify Result

Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation and verify that all elements and electrons (if there are charges/ions) are balanced.

3 Mg + 8 HNO3 = 3 Mg(NO3)2 + 2 NO + 4 H2O

Reactants Products Mg 3 3 ✔️ 8 8 ✔️ 8 8 ✔️ 24 24 ✔️

Since there is an equal number of each element in the reactants and products of 3Mg + 8HNO3 = 3Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O, the equation is balanced.

## Balance Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O Using Inspection

The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed, which means there must be the same number atoms at the kết thúc of a chemical reaction as at the beginning. To be balanced, every element in Mg + HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O must have the same number of atoms on each side of the equation. When using the inspection method (also known as the trial-and-error method), this principle is used đồ sộ balance one element at a time until both sides are equal and the chemical equation is balanced.

### Step 1: Count the number of each element on the left and right hand sides

Reactants (Left Hand Side)Products (Right Hand Side)
ReactantsProducts
MgHNO3TotalMg(NO3)2NOH2OTotal
Mg1111✔️
H1122
N11213
O336118

### Step 2: Multiply coefficients for compounds đồ sộ balance out each element

For each element that is not equal, try đồ sộ balance it by adding more of it đồ sộ the side with less. Sometimes there may be multiple compounds with that element on one side, ví you'll need đồ sộ use your best judgement and be prepared đồ sộ go back and try the other options.

1. H is not balanced. Add 1 molecule of HNO3 đồ sộ the reactant (left-hand) side đồ sộ balance Hydrogen:
Mg + 2HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H22✔️
N23
O68
2. N is not balanced. Add 1 molecule of HNO3 đồ sộ the reactant (left-hand) side đồ sộ balance Nitrogen:
Mg + 3HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H32
N33✔️
O98
3. O is not balanced. Add 1 molecule of NO đồ sộ the product (right-hand) side đồ sộ balance Oxygen:
Mg + 3HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H32
N34
O99✔️
4. N is not balanced. Add 1 molecule of HNO3 đồ sộ the reactant (left-hand) side đồ sộ balance Nitrogen:
Mg + 4HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H42
N44✔️
O129
5. H is not balanced. Add 1 molecule of H2O đồ sộ the product (right-hand) side đồ sộ balance Hydrogen:
Mg + 4HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 2H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H44✔️
N44✔️
O1210
6. O is not balanced. Add 2 molecules of H2O đồ sộ the product (right-hand) side đồ sộ balance Oxygen:
Mg + 4HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H48
N44✔️
O1212✔️
7. H is not balanced. Add 4 molecules of HNO3 đồ sộ the reactant (left-hand) side đồ sộ balance Hydrogen:
Mg + 8HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg11✔️
H88✔️
N84
O2412
8. N is not balanced. Add 2 molecules of Mg(NO3)2 đồ sộ the product (right-hand) side đồ sộ balance Nitrogen:
Mg + 8HNO3 = 3Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

Xem thêm: bài 8 địa 10 kết nối tri thức

ReactantsProducts
Mg13
H88✔️
N88✔️
O2424✔️

We could not determine all the steps needed đồ sộ balance the equation using trial and error. This may mean it requires too many steps and the chemical equation is too complex đồ sộ use this method, or that the equation is invalid (e.g. has 0 or non-integer coefficients). The algebraic method is likely better suited for balancing this equation.

If you would lượt thích đồ sộ attempt đồ sộ guess the next steps, the final element counts in the balanced equation should be:

3Mg + 8HNO3 = 3Mg(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

ReactantsProducts
Mg33✔️
H88✔️
N88✔️
O2424✔️